7 Facts about the Deep Sea
Netgenz - Science | On the one hand, we get to know the beautiful sea, full of coral reefs and lifelike in the movie Finding Nemo. On the other hand, we know the deep sea which is synonymous with darkness, creatures that look scary, and various secrets that we don't know even now. It's 180 degrees different, but that's the fact.
What is the deep sea or the deep sea and what is hiding in the darkness? Check out seven facts, reported by Ocean Exploration, MarineBio, TED, and other sources.
Read Also: 7 Great Mysteries in Antarctica
Here are 7 Facts about the Deep Sea
1. Darkness in the twilight zone
Bristlemouth Fish Illustration
Before you dive deeper to learn about the deep sea, you must first understand the meaning of the deep sea.
Deep-sea or deep ocean is referred to as Ocean Exploration as the depth of the sea where the light begins to shrink, generally around 200 meters. Zone with the depth of the sea between 200 meters. up to 1000 meters. called the mesopelagic zone of the twilight zone. In the twilight zone, the sunlight is dim and there is no photosynthesis process in it.
When you hear the word deep sea, you probably think that there are some scary giant creatures. Although there are indeed large creatures, the reality is that generally, animals in the dark are small in size.
In a TED video, Heidi M. Sosik as a speaker gave examples of lantern fish (Myctophidae) and bristlemouth fish (Cyclothone). The size of the bristlemouth fish is less than 5 cm. However, they are believed to be the most abundant vertebrates on earth with several hundred trillion or even quadrillion fish swimming in the twilight zone.
2. three zones do not get sunlight
Sea Zone Illustration
If the twilight zone is recognized as a dimly lit zone, the three zones below it don't even get the same amount of sunlight. After the mesopelagic, there is a bathypelagic zone (1,000-4,000 meters), abisopelagic (4,000-6,000 meters), and hadopelagic zones called the deepest zone (6,000-11,000 meters).
Animals that live in the bathypelagic zone are fish, mollusks, crustaceans, and jellyfish. The vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) lives at these depths.
Abisopelagic as a home for some organisms only remembers the freezing temperatures and high pressures. Examples of living things in this zone are certain species of squid and octopus.
In the deepest zone, an example of a living animal is the cusk eel (Ophidiidae). This animal can also be found in shallow epipelagic zones (from sea level to 200 meters.).
Make You Like: 5 Levels of Pressure Under the Sea
3. Difficult to explore
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle illustration
According to the National Ocean Service, more than 80% of our oceans have not been mapped, viewed, or explored. Researchers are increasingly relying on technology such as sonar to produce seabed maps. This is because the use of marine vehicles such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV/Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) and remotely operated vehicles (ROV/Remotely Operated Vehicles) is difficult and expensive.
In addition, Oceana suggests that the strong emphasis on the ocean makes it the most difficult environment to explore. Therefore, sending people into space is easier than sending people to the bottom of the ocean.
Troubles are not one of the reasons that lead to the number of unexplored marine areas. Still quoting the same source, exploit to gather a lot of important marine info. However, many agencies around the world are lazy to finance projects related to something that is lacking in information, such as the sea.
4. Deep Sea Gigantism, when the size of deep-sea creatures becomes very large
Spider Crab Illustration
You may have seen videos or read articles about deep-sea creatures. It's scary, but did you know that gigantic size has an argument?
This event has the name 'Deep sea gigantism', namely the tendency of invertebrates, vertebrates, and other sea creatures to be larger in size in the deep sea than other creatures in the shallow sea.
This can be explained by Bergmann's Rule and Kleiber's Rule. Releasing the World Atlas, Kleiber's Rules say that large animals are more effective than small animals. The deep-sea does not have much food, so the organisms that live at that level become larger and more effective.
Furthermore, Bergmann's rule states that the body size of marine animals tends to increase with decreasing temperature. Generally, large marine animals are found in colder regions.
In addition to gigantism, some of the characteristics attached to deep-sea creatures are open, black, or red colors. They are long and can span decades or even eras.
5. How sea creatures find food
Deep-Sea Anglerfish Illustration
Deep ocean zones force the organisms in them to adapt. Quoted by MarineBio, deep-sea living creatures will eat carrion, for example, some remnants of microbes, algae, plants, and animals that decompose from the upper zone of the sea. One example of an animal carcass that is interpreted is a whale.
Some species in the mesopelagic zone adapt to a behavior called vertical migration. At dusk, millions of lantern fish, shrimp, jellyfish, and other animals migrate up the food-rich waters to forage in the dark.
They also return to the depths at dawn, meaning to cultivate food. This 'return' to the deep sea probably arose because the millions of animals evaded predators. The third foraging step is filtering. For example, Megalodicopia has a large pipe with a jaw-like shape that can quickly swallow swimming animals.
6. It turns out that animals don't just forage on the surface of the sea
Illustration of comparison of fish swimming patterns with satellite records
We have learned that deep-sea creatures migrate upward in search of food. Apparently, the animals above the sea look for food in the deep zone, you know!
This is demonstrated in a TED video showing that many top-level predators generally dive into the twilight zone in search of food. With the use of satellite search tools on animals such as sharks, it was found that the foraging center is linked to ocean currents and other factors.
7. Twilight threatened zone
Twilight zones are threatened because some ships in the open sea without regulation have sucked in several hundred thousand small shrimp-like animals called krill (Euphausiacea). The animal is ground into fishmeal and krill oil.
This action poses a global risk to marine life and marine food webs. Therefore, communes of fishermen and researchers equate the need to protect ecosystems with the benefits of finding new food sources to tackle the problem of world hunger, as quoted by Treehugger.
Those are seven pieces of evidence regarding the deep seaside. Although it's still a mystery, at least you know a little about the mystical side. Hopefully, changes in technology will make marine exploitation safer and easier. What do you think?