Almost Forgotten, These are 5 Ancient Kingdoms in the Transcaucasian Region

These are 5 Ancient Kingdoms in the Transcaucasian Region

These are 5 Ancient Kingdoms in the Transcaucasian Region


Netgenz - Sains | Transcaucasia is a territory in the southern part of the Caucasian Mountains that lies just between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Therefore, this territory can be seen as one that separates the continents of Asia and Europe. Today's Transcaucasia is home to three countries, namely Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. In the past period, the region was the victim of competition for several major countries around it and the ideological, political, religious, and military competition of the present era. For example the fall of communism by the Soviet Union or the Armenia-Azerbaijan dispute. In terms of all the rumors, Transcaucasia has the oldest and most distinct heritage and history from the rest. The various obsolete countries in the form of kingdoms that we want to discuss this time have been there for more than two thousand years. Please read, yes!

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1. the Urartu Kingdom

Van Fort, Turkey

Van Fort, Turkey


Urartu is an ancient kingdom that was founded in 9 BC and ruled the mountainous regions of Armenia, eastern Turkey, and northern Iran. This country has a geographical advantage that facilitates mineral mining, livestock, and plantation activities. Due to the favorable weather for the application of viticulture (knowledge of vine cultivation), Urartu was one of the first wine producers in the Transcaucasian territory. This oldest empire in Armenia forged good economic ties with the Mediterranean territories and the ancient peoples of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey).

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King Deer II of Urartu who ruled in 7 BC was the founder of the modern capital of Armenia, Yerevan. However, this kingdom was formerly the capital city of Tushpa (now Van in Turkey) which was found an old fort as an eyewitness to the greatness of this kingdom at that time. After being able to survive for about three centuries, Urartu couldn't help but give up because of the onslaught started by the Assyrians, the Medes of Iran, and the Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.

2. Kingdom of Armenia

Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia

Etchmiadzin Cathedral, Armenia


The Armenian kingdom that was created after the fall of Urartu was ruled by three major dynasties, namely the Orontid, Artaxiad, and Arsacid. This kingdom was originally a satrap (autonomous province) of the Persians from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC. As far back as the Orontid era, the Kingdom of Armenia was not actually 100% independent due to colonization by Macedon, Seleucid Empire, and Parthian Empire.

During the Artaxiad Dynasty, Armenia reached its peak of fame when King Tigranes the Great annexed an area from the Black Sea in the north to near the Mediterranean (Antioch) in the south. Armenia experienced rising prosperity but faced terror by two giant countries, Ancient Rome in the west and Parthia in the east. This dynasty ended when the Romans and Parthians had a conflict which resulted in Armenia being a victim.

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The Arsacid dynasty was the time when Armenia managed to escape for now from the grip of the invaders and merged in the time of King Tiridates III. This king became a Christian in 301 AD after being healed by Saint Gregory the Illuminator. Since that incident, Armenia became the world's first Christian empire, so church construction continued in several parts of Armenia, including the Etchmiadzin Cathedral which still exists today near Yerevan. Unfortunately, the dynasty that created the Armenian alphabet was stopped by the Persians in 428 AD.

3. The Kingdom of Colchis

Nokalakevi Fortress, Georgia

Nokalakevi Fortress, Georgia


The Kingdom of Colchis was the first state on Georgian soil which was founded in the era of 6 BC. The creation of this kingdom was based on the union of several tribes in Georgia for the first few hundred years which later succeeded in developing quickly and creating a monarchical government. Long before the creation of the empire, the land of Colchis was very rich in gold, timber, and agricultural products which were exported to Greece in the days of the first colonialism. According to Greek mythology, Colchis was the destination of Jason and the Argonauts in search of the golden fleece.

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This kingdom was ruled by several neighboring countries and nations, such as the Medes, Persians, Saka, and the Kingdom of Pontus. Colchis was eventually occupied by General Pompey and incorporated into the provinces of the Roman Empire. In Ancient Rome, Colchis was merged into a new semi-autonomous kingdom, Lazika. Although it has been destroyed, one of the evidence of the existence of the Kolkhis Kingdom is the Nokalakevi Fort which was built by King Kuji of Kolkhis in the 4th or 3rd century BC which was then used as a defense of Lazika.

4. Kingdom of Caucasian Albania

Ancient Gate Ruins in Qabala, Azerbaijan

Ancient Gate Ruins in Qabala, Azerbaijan


Caucasian Albania was formerly found as a satrap or autonomous region of the Media Empire in the 4th century BC. Located in present-day Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, the Kingdom of Caucasian Albania originated from the unification of various tribes there which was held by the head of the first monarchical government in 2 BC. According to researchers in the past, residents in this royal area were simple seminomadic people who did not know money. They still prioritize barter, live by hunting, and are believed to have 26 languages ​​or accents.

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Caucasian Albania has a long history of strife, such as the colonization by General Pompey in 65 BC and interference from several of its neighbors. After colonization by the Sasanian Empire, a dynasty from Persia came and ruled in Caucasian Albania from the 4th century. At that time, several large cities began to be found in this kingdom area. An example is Qabala. This dynasty lasted for several hundred years and ended when the Arabs conquered Caucasian Albania in the 7th century.

5. Kingdom of Iberia

Samtavro Monastery, Georgia

Samtavro Monastery, Georgia


The Iberian Empire was born after a tribal chief, Pharnavaz managed to control many areas in Georgia and its surroundings, including the Kingdom of Colchis. He became the first Iberian king since 302 BC, did much of the construction of the capital Armaztsikhe, and reformed the traditional Georgian recorded language. At a disadvantage, the Kingdom of Iberia was eventually subjugated to the Kingdom of Armenia, the Ancient Roman Empire, and most recently the Sasanian Empire of Persia. At first, the Iberians worked together and made good partnerships with foreign nations. Iberia had attempted to restore the sovereignty of its kingdom in the 5th century by King Gorgasali, but it only had a short duration. This kingdom was finally declared dissolved in 580 and became a Sasanian province.

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One of the legacies of the Iberian Empire that has been successfully saved is the Samtavro Monastery in Mtskheta City (another Iberian capital) which has been restored many times. This monastery was created in the 4th century by Mirian III, the first Christian king of Iberia. The five kingdoms that have been discussed as some of the ancient Transcaucasian countries that survived as best they could amidst the attacks of many great powers for the safety of Transcaucasian culture until now. The following past that some countries can be proud of as part of their ancestral identity and identity.

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